## Body of Knowledge

Six Sigma Body of Knowledge:

Lean Six Sigma Body of Knowledge:

#### White Belt Body of Knowledge (CSSC)

A White Belt has a basic understanding of Six Sigma fundamentals and their application. It is intended for any individual where Six Sigma is being deployed. Although not an active part of a Six Sigma project when they are carried out, the entire organization benefits by being aware of the key tools and concepts of the Six Sigma methodologies.

- Data Driven Processes and Decisions
- Decision Making Without Six Sigma
- Decision Making With Six Sigma
- Defining Six Sigma
- Real World Examples
- Calculating Sigma Level
- Sigma Level Is Not a Final Indicator
- Common Six Sigma Principles
- Customer-Focused Improvement
- Value Streams
- Continuous Process Improvement
- Variation
- Removing Waste
- Equipping People
- Controlling the Process
- Challenges of Six Sigma
- Lack of Support
- Lack of Resources or Knowledge
- Poor Project Execution
- Data Access Issues
- Concerns about Using Six Sigma in a Specific Industry

- The Development of Statistical Process Control
- Continuous Process Improvement: Toyota and Lean
- Motorola’s Focus on Defects
- ABB, Allied Signal, and General Electric
- Continued Growth of Six Sigma
- Applying Six Sigma Knowledge
- The Levels of Six Sigma Certification
- White Belt
- Yellow Belt
- Green Belt
- Black Belt
- Master Black Belt
- Certification Exams

- Other Formal Quality or Process Improvement Programs
- Lean Process Management
- Total Quality Management
- Business Process Reengineering
- Rummler-Brache
- Scrum
- The Customer Experience Management Method (CEM)
- JumpStart
- When to Choose Six Sigma
- When Facing the Unknown
- When Problems Are Widespread and Not Defined
- When Solving Complex Problems
- When Costs Are Closely Tied to Processes

#### Yellow Belt Body of Knowledge (CSSC)

The Yellow Belt designation refers to employees that have basic training in the Six Sigma quality improvement methodology and participate in related projects. They have a basic understanding of the methodology and assume a supportive role to both Green and Black Belts within a Six Sigma Team. Like the Green Belts, they usually also have other non-Six Sigma related responsibilities within their job descriptions.

The Yellow Belt designation refers to employees that have basic training in the Six Sigma quality improvement methodology and participate in related projects. They have a basic understanding of the methodology and assume a supportive role to both Green and Black Belts within a Six Sigma Team. Like the Green Belts, they usually also have other non-Six Sigma related responsibilities within their job descriptions.

- Data Driven Processes and Decisions
- Decision Making Without Six Sigma
- Decision Making With Six Sigma
- Defining Six Sigma
- Real World Examples
- Calculating Sigma Level
- Sigma Level Is Not a Final Indicator
- Common Six Sigma Principles
- Customer-Focused Improvement
- Value Streams
- Continuous Process Improvement
- Variation
- Removing Waste
- Equipping People
- Controlling the Process
- Challenges of Six Sigma
- Lack of Support
- Lack of Resources or Knowledge
- Poor Project Execution
- Data Access Issues
- Concerns about Using Six Sigma in a Specific Industry

- The Development of Statistical Process Control
- Continuous Process Improvement: Toyota and Lean
- Motorola’s Focus on Defects
- ABB, Allied Signal, and General Electric
- Continued Growth of Six Sigma
- Applying Six Sigma Knowledge
- The Levels of Six Sigma Certification
- White Belt
- Yellow Belt
- Green Belt
- Black Belt
- Master Black Belt
- Certification Exams

- Other Formal Quality or Process Improvement Programs
- Lean Process Management
- Total Quality Management
- Business Process Reengineering
- Rummler-Brache
- Scrum
- The Customer Experience Management Method (CEM)
- JumpStart
- When to Choose Six Sigma
- When Facing the Unknown
- When Problems Are Widespread and Not Defined
- When Solving Complex Problems
- When Costs Are Closely Tied to Processes

- The Seven Muda
- Overproduction
- Correction
- Inventory
- Motion
- Conveyance
- Over-Processing
- Waiting
- Other Forms of Waste
- Talent
- Ideas
- Capital/Cash
- Two Types of Muda
- Type I Muda
- Type II Muda
- 5S
- Phase I: Sort
- Phase 2: Straighten
- Phase 3: Shine
- Phase 4: Standardize
- Phase 5: Sustain
- Just-in-Time Manufacturing
- Lean Concepts Crop Up in Many Improvement Methodologies

- Standard Deviation
- The Pareto Principle
- Creating a Basic Pareto Chart in Excel
- Voice of the Customer
- Building a VOC Campaign
- Selecting the Right VOC Tools
- The Likert Scale
- Basic Metrics
- Defects per Million Opportunities
- Defects per Unit
- First Time Yield (FTY)
- Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)

- Problem Functions: y = f(x)
- The 5 Whys
- When to Use 5 Whys
- Conducting a 5 Whys Session
- Creating a Problem Statement
- Example of a Strong Problem Statement
- Example of a Weak Problem Statement
- Writing Your Own Problem Statement
- Problem Statements Lead to Objective Statements/Goals

- What is a Process?
- Four Layers of the Process Definition
- The Steps
- Processing Time
- Interdependencies
- Resources and Assignment
- Major Process Components
- Inputs
- Outputs
- Events
- Tasks
- Decisions
- All Components Are Related
- Process Owners
- What does a process owner do?
- Data
- Defining Process Components: The SIPOC
- Benefits of a SIPOC Diagram
- Creating a SIPOC Diagram
- Tips for a SIPOC Brainstorming Session
- Sample SIPOC Diagrams
- Business-Level SIPOC Diagram
- SIPOC of an Automated Process
- SIPOC with Enablers Noted
- Create Your Own SIPOC Diagram

- Critical to Quality Characteristics
- Why Identify CTQs?
- Using a CTQ Tree to Convert Customer Needs to Quality Metrics
- The CoQ and the CoPQ
- The Cost of Poor Quality
- Calculating the Cost of Poor Quality
- The Cost of Quality
- Calculating the Cost of Quality
- The Cost of Quality and Six Sigma
- Managing Cost of Quality
- Quality is Critical to Success

- Juggling the Right Amount of Projects
- Enterprise-Level Selection Process
- The Project Viability Model
- Project Selection at a Process Level
- See For Yourself

- Building a Six Sigma Team
- Team Member Roles
- Timelines, Scheduling, and Milestones
- Phase-Based Timeline
- Critical Path Method
- Milestone Meetings
- Budgets
- Defined Measures of Success

- DMAIC versus DMADV
- Define
- Measure
- Analyze
- Improve
- Control
- Design
- Verify
- Breaking Up the Elephant

#### Green Belt Body of Knowledge (CSSC)

Green Belts are Six Sigma Professionals who work closely under Black Belts, responsible for doing most of the Six Sigma data collection. Since this methodology is highly statistical in nature, it is of utmost importance to start with a complete set of good and accurate data. Green Belts are usually employees of a Six Sigma company who also have other day to day responsibilities within the framework of that company.

Occasionally, a Green Belt can also fulfill minor leadership roles within a Six Sigma Team, especially for smaller scale projects. They are well-educated on the correct use of the Six Sigma Tools and employ them under the direction of a Black Belt Project Leader.

- Data Driven Processes and Decisions
- Decision Making Without Six Sigma
- Decision Making With Six Sigma
- Defining Six Sigma
- Real World Examples
- Calculating Sigma Level
- Sigma Level Is Not a Final Indicator
- Common Six Sigma Principles
- Customer-Focused Improvement
- Value Streams
- Continuous Process Improvement
- Variation
- Removing Waste
- Equipping People
- Controlling the Process
- Challenges of Six Sigma
- Lack of Support
- Lack of Resources or Knowledge
- Poor Project Execution
- Data Access Issues
- Concerns about Using Six Sigma in a Specific Industry

- The Development of Statistical Process Control
- Continuous Process Improvement: Toyota and Lean
- Motorola’s Focus on Defects
- ABB, Allied Signal, and General Electric
- Continued Growth of Six Sigma
- Applying Six Sigma Knowledge
- The Levels of Six Sigma Certification
- White Belt
- Yellow Belt
- Green Belt
- Black Belt
- Master Black Belt
- Certification Exams

- Other Formal Quality or Process Improvement Programs
- Lean Process Management
- Total Quality Management
- Business Process Reengineering
- Rummler-Brache
- Scrum
- The Customer Experience Management Method (CEM)
- JumpStart
- When to Choose Six Sigma
- When Facing the Unknown
- When Problems Are Widespread and Not Defined
- When Solving Complex Problems
- When Costs Are Closely Tied to Processes

- The Seven Muda
- Overproduction
- Correction
- Inventory
- Motion
- Conveyance
- Over-Processing
- Waiting
- Other Forms of Waste
- Talent
- Ideas
- Capital/Cash
- Two Types of Muda
- Type I Muda
- Type II Muda
- 5S
- Phase I: Sort
- Phase 2: Straighten
- Phase 3: Shine
- Phase 4: Standardize
- Phase 5: Sustain
- Just-in-Time Manufacturing
- Lean Concepts Crop Up in Many Improvement Methodologies

- Standard Deviation
- The Pareto Principle
- Creating a Basic Pareto Chart in Excel
- Voice of the Customer
- Building a VOC Campaign
- Selecting the Right VOC Tools
- The Likert Scale
- Basic Metrics
- Defects per Million Opportunities
- Defects per Unit
- First Time Yield (FTY)
- Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)

- Problem Functions: y = f(x)
- The 5 Whys
- When to Use 5 Whys
- Conducting a 5 Whys Session
- Creating a Problem Statement
- Example of a Strong Problem Statement
- Example of a Weak Problem Statement
- Writing Your Own Problem Statement
- Problem Statements Lead to Objective Statements/Goals

- What is a Process?
- Four Layers of the Process Definition
- The Steps
- Processing Time
- Interdependencies
- Resources and Assignment
- Major Process Components
- Inputs
- Outputs
- Events
- Tasks
- Decisions
- All Components Are Related
- Process Owners
- What does a process owner do?
- Data
- Defining Process Components: The SIPOC
- Benefits of a SIPOC Diagram
- Creating a SIPOC Diagram
- Tips for a SIPOC Brainstorming Session
- Sample SIPOC Diagrams
- Business-Level SIPOC Diagram
- SIPOC of an Automated Process
- SIPOC with Enablers Noted
- Create Your Own SIPOC Diagram

- Critical to Quality Characteristics
- Why Identify CTQs?
- Using a CTQ Tree to Convert Customer Needs to Quality Metrics
- The CoQ and the CoPQ
- The Cost of Poor Quality
- Calculating the Cost of Poor Quality
- The Cost of Quality
- Calculating the Cost of Quality
- The Cost of Quality and Six Sigma
- Managing Cost of Quality
- Quality is Critical to Success

- Juggling the Right Amount of Projects
- Enterprise-Level Selection Process
- The Project Viability Model
- Project Selection at a Process Level
- See For Yourself

- Building a Six Sigma Team
- Team Member Roles
- Timelines, Scheduling, and Milestones
- Phase-Based Timeline
- Critical Path Method
- Milestone Meetings
- Budgets
- Defined Measures of Success

- DMAIC versus DMADV
- Define
- Measure
- Analyze
- Improve
- Control
- Design
- Verify
- Breaking Up the Elephant

- Creating a Project Charter
- Benefits of an Organizational Team Charter Template
- Details for Charter Elements
- Review the Charter with Success in Mind
- Project Ground Rules
- Define Toolset
- Stakeholder Analysis
- In and Out of the Box Method
- Is/Is Not Matrix
- Define Tollgate Checklist

- Failure Modes and Effect Analysis
- Collecting Data
- Continuous Versus Discrete Data
- Levels of Data
- Choosing the Best Measurement Systems
- Gage R&R
- Collecting Data
- Delivering a Baseline Metric
- Measure Tollgate Checklist

- Root Cause Analysis
- The Cause and Effect, or Fishbone, Diagram
- Root Cause Verification Matrix
- Graphical Analysis
- Statistical Analysis
- Analyze Tollgate Checklist

- Solutions Selection Matrix
- Cost Benefit Analysis
- Piloting a Solution
- Planning Implementation
- Documentation
- Training
- Transition
- Improve Tollgate Checklist

- Revise FMEA
- Create a Control Plan
- Visual Management
- SPC Charts
- Control Versus Capability
- Team Celebration and Reflection
- Control Tollgate Checklist

- Additional Graphical Analysis Tools
- Bar Charts
- Pie Charts
- X Y Scatter Diagrams
- Creating an X-Bar Control Chart without Statistical Software
- Adding Free Data Analysis Tools to Excel

- Probability Distributions
- Applying Basic Probability Concepts to Six Sigma Analysis
- Histograms
- Creating a Histogram in Excel
- Normal Distributions
- Normality Testing in Excel: Chi-Squared Goodness-of-Fit Test
- Normal Probabilities

- Correlation
- The Correlation Coefficient
- Calculating Correlation Coefficient in Excel: Two Methods
- Linear Regression Analysis
- Analyzing Regression Using the Data Analysis ToolPak
- Using Correlation and Regression in Six Sigma

- Reviewing Normal Probability Distributions
- Non-Normal Continuous Distributions
- Lognormal Distribution
- Weibull Distribution
- Other Types of Continuous Distributions
- Non-Normal Discrete Distributions
- Binomial Distribution
- Poisson Distribution
- Other Types of Discrete Distributions
- Applying Data to Real-World Situations

- Hypothesis Test Basics
- Selecting the Right Hypothesis Test
- Hypothesis Tests for Discrete Data
- Hypothesis Tests for Continuous Normal Data
- Hypothesis Tests for Continuous Non-Normal Data
- Why Run Hypothesis Tests
- Running Hypothesis Tests
- Hypothesis Test Examples
- Hypothesis Testing in Analyze, Improve, and Control
- A Review of Hypothesis Testing Terms

- A Review of Hypothesis Testing Errors
- What Information is Required for Choosing Sample Size?
- Guidelines for Setting Various Numbers When Calculating Sample Size
- Sample Size Calculations: Choosing the Right Method
- Running and Analyzing Sample Size Tests in Minitab
- Sample Calculations for a 1-Sample T Test
- Sample Calculations for a 1-Sample Proportion Test
- Sample Size Calculations for a 2-Sample T Test
- A Reminder Regarding Random Samples

- Common Control Chart Types and When to Use Them
- Creating and Reading Control Charts in Minitab
- X-Bar & R Charts or X-Bar & S Charts
- I-MR Chart
- P-Chart
- Practice Interpreting Control Charts
- Common Cause versus Special Cause Variation
- Additional Minitab Control Charts

- Common Challenges When Presenting Statistical Analysis
- Why Include Some Statistics?
- Tips for Creating Business-Friendly Presentations
- Understand the Target Audience
- Tell a Story with Text and Images
- Be Clear and Concise
- Don’t Misuse Your Tools
- Don’t Let the Presentation Drive the Project

#### Black Belt Body of Knowledge (CSSC)

Black Belts are considered the leaders within a Six Sigma team. Part of their duty is to oversee what other members (Green and Yellow Belts) have accomplished and keep all team members on track to reach goals and deadlines. Their primary task is project management; they are the individuals who define a Six Sigma project and its scope. It is their task to set goals and timelines for the project as well as constantly update executives and stakeholders of the current status of the business. Additionally, they often exhibit excellent communication skills and take on the role of the ‘change agent’ within their organization.

Since they are given a lot of responsibility within a Six Sigma Team, it is a requirement for these individuals to undergo training and earn sufficient experience in the form of leading Six Sigma Projects. These experts are well rounded in their knowledge of financial and statistical analysis, project management, and Six Sigma Tools. This knowledge and experience enables them to perform a wider range of tasks. Six Sigma Black Belts are often sought after and are highly employable because of these characteristics.

- Data Driven Processes and Decisions
- Decision Making Without Six Sigma
- Decision Making With Six Sigma
- Defining Six Sigma
- Real World Examples
- Calculating Sigma Level
- Sigma Level Is Not a Final Indicator
- Common Six Sigma Principles
- Customer-Focused Improvement
- Value Streams
- Continuous Process Improvement
- Variation
- Removing Waste
- Equipping People
- Controlling the Process
- Challenges of Six Sigma
- Lack of Support
- Lack of Resources or Knowledge
- Poor Project Execution
- Data Access Issues
- Concerns about Using Six Sigma in a Specific Industry

- The Development of Statistical Process Control
- Continuous Process Improvement: Toyota and Lean
- Motorola’s Focus on Defects
- ABB, Allied Signal, and General Electric
- Continued Growth of Six Sigma
- Applying Six Sigma Knowledge
- The Levels of Six Sigma Certification
- White Belt
- Yellow Belt
- Green Belt
- Black Belt
- Master Black Belt
- Certification Exams

- Other Formal Quality or Process Improvement Programs
- Lean Process Management
- Total Quality Management
- Business Process Reengineering
- Rummler-Brache
- Scrum
- The Customer Experience Management Method (CEM)
- JumpStart
- When to Choose Six Sigma
- When Facing the Unknown
- When Problems Are Widespread and Not Defined
- When Solving Complex Problems
- When Costs Are Closely Tied to Processes

- The Seven Muda
- Overproduction
- Correction
- Inventory
- Motion
- Conveyance
- Over-Processing
- Waiting
- Other Forms of Waste
- Talent
- Ideas
- Capital/Cash
- Two Types of Muda
- Type I Muda
- Type II Muda
- 5S
- Phase I: Sort
- Phase 2: Straighten
- Phase 3: Shine
- Phase 4: Standardize
- Phase 5: Sustain
- Just-in-Time Manufacturing
- Lean Concepts Crop Up in Many Improvement Methodologies

- Standard Deviation
- The Pareto Principle
- Creating a Basic Pareto Chart in Excel
- Voice of the Customer
- Building a VOC Campaign
- Selecting the Right VOC Tools
- The Likert Scale
- Basic Metrics
- Defects per Million Opportunities
- Defects per Unit
- First Time Yield (FTY)
- Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)

- Problem Functions: y = f(x)
- The 5 Whys
- When to Use 5 Whys
- Conducting a 5 Whys Session
- Creating a Problem Statement
- Example of a Strong Problem Statement
- Example of a Weak Problem Statement
- Writing Your Own Problem Statement
- Problem Statements Lead to Objective Statements/Goals

- What is a Process?
- Four Layers of the Process Definition
- The Steps
- Processing Time
- Interdependencies
- Resources and Assignment
- Major Process Components
- Inputs
- Outputs
- Events
- Tasks
- Decisions
- All Components Are Related
- Process Owners
- What does a process owner do?
- Data
- Defining Process Components: The SIPOC
- Benefits of a SIPOC Diagram
- Creating a SIPOC Diagram
- Tips for a SIPOC Brainstorming Session
- Sample SIPOC Diagrams
- Business-Level SIPOC Diagram
- SIPOC of an Automated Process
- SIPOC with Enablers Noted
- Create Your Own SIPOC Diagram

- Critical to Quality Characteristics
- Why Identify CTQs?
- Using a CTQ Tree to Convert Customer Needs to Quality Metrics
- The CoQ and the CoPQ
- The Cost of Poor Quality
- Calculating the Cost of Poor Quality
- The Cost of Quality
- Calculating the Cost of Quality
- The Cost of Quality and Six Sigma
- Managing Cost of Quality
- Quality is Critical to Success

- Juggling the Right Amount of Projects
- Enterprise-Level Selection Process
- The Project Viability Model
- Project Selection at a Process Level
- See For Yourself

- Building a Six Sigma Team
- Team Member Roles
- Timelines, Scheduling, and Milestones
- Phase-Based Timeline
- Critical Path Method
- Milestone Meetings
- Budgets
- Defined Measures of Success

- DMAIC versus DMADV
- Define
- Measure
- Analyze
- Improve
- Control
- Design
- Verify
- Breaking Up the Elephant

- Creating a Project Charter
- Benefits of an Organizational Team Charter Template
- Details for Charter Elements
- Review the Charter with Success in Mind
- Project Ground Rules
- Define Toolset
- Stakeholder Analysis
- In and Out of the Box Method
- Is/Is Not Matrix
- Define Tollgate Checklist

- Failure Modes and Effect Analysis
- Collecting Data
- Continuous Versus Discrete Data
- Levels of Data
- Choosing the Best Measurement Systems
- Gage R&R
- Collecting Data
- Delivering a Baseline Metric
- Measure Tollgate Checklist

- Root Cause Analysis
- The Cause and Effect, or Fishbone, Diagram
- Root Cause Verification Matrix
- Graphical Analysis
- Statistical Analysis
- Analyze Tollgate Checklist

- Solutions Selection Matrix
- Cost Benefit Analysis
- Piloting a Solution
- Planning Implementation
- Documentation
- Training
- Transition
- Improve Tollgate Checklist

- Revise FMEA
- Create a Control Plan
- Visual Management
- SPC Charts
- Control Versus Capability
- Team Celebration and Reflection
- Control Tollgate Checklist

- Additional Graphical Analysis Tools
- Bar Charts
- Pie Charts
- X Y Scatter Diagrams
- Creating an X-Bar Control Chart without Statistical Software
- Adding Free Data Analysis Tools to Excel

- Probability Distributions
- Applying Basic Probability Concepts to Six Sigma Analysis
- Histograms
- Creating a Histogram in Excel
- Normal Distributions
- Normality Testing in Excel: Chi-Squared Goodness-of-Fit Test
- Normal Probabilities

- Correlation
- The Correlation Coefficient
- Calculating Correlation Coefficient in Excel: Two Methods
- Linear Regression Analysis
- Analyzing Regression Using the Data Analysis ToolPak
- Using Correlation and Regression in Six Sigma

- Reviewing Normal Probability Distributions
- Non-Normal Continuous Distributions
- Lognormal Distribution
- Weibull Distribution
- Other Types of Continuous Distributions
- Non-Normal Discrete Distributions
- Binomial Distribution
- Poisson Distribution
- Other Types of Discrete Distributions
- Applying Data to Real-World Situations

- Hypothesis Test Basics
- Selecting the Right Hypothesis Test
- Hypothesis Tests for Discrete Data
- Hypothesis Tests for Continuous Normal Data
- Hypothesis Tests for Continuous Non-Normal Data
- Why Run Hypothesis Tests
- Running Hypothesis Tests
- Hypothesis Test Examples
- Hypothesis Testing in Analyze, Improve, and Control
- A Review of Hypothesis Testing Terms

- A Review of Hypothesis Testing Errors
- What Information is Required for Choosing Sample Size?
- Guidelines for Setting Various Numbers When Calculating Sample Size
- Sample Size Calculations: Choosing the Right Method
- Running and Analyzing Sample Size Tests in Minitab
- Sample Calculations for a 1-Sample T Test
- Sample Calculations for a 1-Sample Proportion Test
- Sample Size Calculations for a 2-Sample T Test
- A Reminder Regarding Random Samples

- Common Control Chart Types and When to Use Them
- Creating and Reading Control Charts in Minitab
- X-Bar & R Charts or X-Bar & S Charts
- I-MR Chart
- P-Chart
- Practice Interpreting Control Charts
- Common Cause versus Special Cause Variation
- Additional Minitab Control Charts

- Common Challenges When Presenting Statistical Analysis
- Why Include Some Statistics?
- Tips for Creating Business-Friendly Presentations
- Understand the Target Audience
- Tell a Story with Text and Images
- Be Clear and Concise
- Don’t Misuse Your Tools
- Don’t Let the Presentation Drive the Project

- Overview of the Minitab Interface
- Overview of the Minitab Menu
- The Calc Menu Option
- Random Data
- Column and Row Statistics
- Probability Distributions
- Calculating Multiple Probabilities at Once
- Remember to Work with the Right Probability Distribution

- The Graph Menu Option
- Scatter Plot
- Histogram
- Dotplot
- Boxplot
- Interval Plot
- Bar Chart
- Pie Chart
- The Stat Menu: Quality Tools
- Run Chart
- Pareto Chart
- Gage Studies

- Basic Statistics
- Descriptive and Store Descriptive Statistics
- Regression Analysis
- Statistical Tests
- Running Hypothesis Tests
- Hypothesis Test Steps Are Similar for all Types of Tests

- Preparing for a 1-Way ANOVA
- Running a 1-Way ANOVA
- Validate Assumptions
- Run the 1-Way ANOVA Test
- What if Variances Aren’t Equal?
- The Hypothesis Test Assistance in Minitab

- When Analysis Can Occur on Existing Data
- Why Run an Experiment
- Best-Guess Trial-and-Error versus Factorial Experiments
- What is Factorial Experimentation?
- Step-by-Step Guide for Creating a Designed Experiment
- Step-by-Step Guide to Running a 2k Factorial Experiment in Minitab
- Next Steps

- The Importance of Understanding Interactions
- 2k Factorials Versus Multi-Level Factorials
- Tips for Creating Successful Designed Experiment
- Take Time to Think About the Y, or Response, of Your Experiment
- Plan Ahead, and Keep Excellent Documents
- Account for Confidence Levels
- Use Multiple Analysis and Experiments Together

- Activity Network Diagram
- Affinity Diagram
- Interrelationship Diagram
- Force Field Analysis
- Responsibility Chart
- Nominal Group Technique
- Check Sheets
- SWOT Analysis
- Starburst Brainstorming
- Role-Play or Figuring Brainstorming
- Brainwriting
- The Pool Brainwriting Method
- The Card Brainwriting Method
- Brainstorming Alone

- Why Create Process Maps
- Two Types of Process Map
- Process Map Symbols
- Where Do These Shapes Come From?
- Include a Key with Your Process Map
- Basic Flow Charts
- Creating a Swimlane Diagram
- Begin by Identifying the Swimlanes
- Create Step-by-Step List for Process Activities
- Tips for Creating Concise, Attractive Process Maps

- What is Value Stream Mapping?
- Value Stream Map Symbology
- Value Stream Mapping Tips
- Value Stream Mapping Steps
- Create a Value Stream Map Drawing
- What Do You Do with Value Stream Maps?
- Tips for Creating a Future-State Value Map

#### Master Black Belt Body of Knowledge (CSSC)

The Master Black Belt has a very important role within a Six Sigma Organization. As the name implies, they are experts at the top of the hierarchy of trained and certified Six Sigma Professionals. With their level of experience, skills, and knowledge, they can act as consultants and technologists of this methodology.

During the course of a companywide Six Sigma Implementation, certain issues and problems may arise. Experts like Master Black Belts can help resolve issues that come along and offer appropriate solutions to teams. One of their main responsibilities is to train employees to become Six Sigma Professionals at the Black, Green, or Yellow Belt levels. Master Black Belts can mentor or train others within designated Six Sigma Teams as these individuals have garnered enough knowledge and experience to be designated as ‘experts’ in this particular method of quality improvement.

- Data Driven Processes and Decisions
- Decision Making Without Six Sigma
- Decision Making With Six Sigma
- Defining Six Sigma
- Real World Examples
- Calculating Sigma Level
- Sigma Level Is Not a Final Indicator
- Common Six Sigma Principles
- Customer-Focused Improvement
- Value Streams
- Continuous Process Improvement
- Variation
- Removing Waste
- Equipping People
- Controlling the Process
- Challenges of Six Sigma
- Lack of Support
- Lack of Resources or Knowledge
- Poor Project Execution
- Data Access Issues
- Concerns about Using Six Sigma in a Specific Industry

- The Development of Statistical Process Control
- Continuous Process Improvement: Toyota and Lean
- Motorola’s Focus on Defects
- ABB, Allied Signal, and General Electric
- Continued Growth of Six Sigma
- Applying Six Sigma Knowledge
- The Levels of Six Sigma Certification
- White Belt
- Yellow Belt
- Green Belt
- Black Belt
- Master Black Belt
- Certification Exams

- Other Formal Quality or Process Improvement Programs
- Lean Process Management
- Total Quality Management
- Business Process Reengineering
- Rummler-Brache
- Scrum
- The Customer Experience Management Method (CEM)
- JumpStart
- When to Choose Six Sigma
- When Facing the Unknown
- When Problems Are Widespread and Not Defined
- When Solving Complex Problems
- When Costs Are Closely Tied to Processes

- The Seven Muda
- Overproduction
- Correction
- Inventory
- Motion
- Conveyance
- Over-Processing
- Waiting
- Other Forms of Waste
- Talent
- Ideas
- Capital/Cash
- Two Types of Muda
- Type I Muda
- Type II Muda
- 5S
- Phase I: Sort
- Phase 2: Straighten
- Phase 3: Shine
- Phase 4: Standardize
- Phase 5: Sustain
- Just-in-Time Manufacturing
- Lean Concepts Crop Up in Many Improvement Methodologies

- Standard Deviation
- The Pareto Principle
- Creating a Basic Pareto Chart in Excel
- Voice of the Customer
- Building a VOC Campaign
- Selecting the Right VOC Tools
- The Likert Scale
- Basic Metrics
- Defects per Million Opportunities
- Defects per Unit
- First Time Yield (FTY)
- Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)

- Problem Functions: y = f(x)
- The 5 Whys
- When to Use 5 Whys
- Conducting a 5 Whys Session
- Creating a Problem Statement
- Example of a Strong Problem Statement
- Example of a Weak Problem Statement
- Writing Your Own Problem Statement
- Problem Statements Lead to Objective Statements/Goals

- What is a Process?
- Four Layers of the Process Definition
- The Steps
- Processing Time
- Interdependencies
- Resources and Assignment
- Major Process Components
- Inputs
- Outputs
- Events
- Tasks
- Decisions
- All Components Are Related
- Process Owners
- What does a process owner do?
- Data
- Defining Process Components: The SIPOC
- Benefits of a SIPOC Diagram
- Creating a SIPOC Diagram
- Tips for a SIPOC Brainstorming Session
- Sample SIPOC Diagrams
- Business-Level SIPOC Diagram
- SIPOC of an Automated Process
- SIPOC with Enablers Noted
- Create Your Own SIPOC Diagram

- Critical to Quality Characteristics
- Why Identify CTQs?
- Using a CTQ Tree to Convert Customer Needs to Quality Metrics
- The CoQ and the CoPQ
- The Cost of Poor Quality
- Calculating the Cost of Poor Quality
- The Cost of Quality
- Calculating the Cost of Quality
- The Cost of Quality and Six Sigma
- Managing Cost of Quality
- Quality is Critical to Success

- Juggling the Right Amount of Projects
- Enterprise-Level Selection Process
- The Project Viability Model
- Project Selection at a Process Level
- See For Yourself

- Building a Six Sigma Team
- Team Member Roles
- Timelines, Scheduling, and Milestones
- Phase-Based Timeline
- Critical Path Method
- Milestone Meetings
- Budgets
- Defined Measures of Success

- DMAIC versus DMADV
- Define
- Measure
- Analyze
- Improve
- Control
- Design
- Verify
- Breaking Up the Elephant

- Creating a Project Charter
- Benefits of an Organizational Team Charter Template
- Details for Charter Elements
- Review the Charter with Success in Mind
- Project Ground Rules
- Define Toolset
- Stakeholder Analysis
- In and Out of the Box Method
- Is/Is Not Matrix
- Define Tollgate Checklist

- Failure Modes and Effect Analysis
- Collecting Data
- Continuous Versus Discrete Data
- Levels of Data
- Choosing the Best Measurement Systems
- Gage R&R
- Collecting Data
- Delivering a Baseline Metric
- Measure Tollgate Checklist

- Root Cause Analysis
- The Cause and Effect, or Fishbone, Diagram
- Root Cause Verification Matrix
- Graphical Analysis
- Statistical Analysis
- Analyze Tollgate Checklist

- Solutions Selection Matrix
- Cost Benefit Analysis
- Piloting a Solution
- Planning Implementation
- Documentation
- Training
- Transition
- Improve Tollgate Checklist

- Revise FMEA
- Create a Control Plan
- Visual Management
- SPC Charts
- Control Versus Capability
- Team Celebration and Reflection
- Control Tollgate Checklist

- Additional Graphical Analysis Tools
- Bar Charts
- Pie Charts
- X Y Scatter Diagrams
- Creating an X-Bar Control Chart without Statistical Software
- Adding Free Data Analysis Tools to Excel

- Probability Distributions
- Applying Basic Probability Concepts to Six Sigma Analysis
- Histograms
- Creating a Histogram in Excel
- Normal Distributions
- Normality Testing in Excel: Chi-Squared Goodness-of-Fit Test
- Normal Probabilities

- Correlation
- The Correlation Coefficient
- Calculating Correlation Coefficient in Excel: Two Methods
- Linear Regression Analysis
- Analyzing Regression Using the Data Analysis ToolPak
- Using Correlation and Regression in Six Sigma

- Reviewing Normal Probability Distributions
- Non-Normal Continuous Distributions
- Lognormal Distribution
- Weibull Distribution
- Other Types of Continuous Distributions
- Non-Normal Discrete Distributions
- Binomial Distribution
- Poisson Distribution
- Other Types of Discrete Distributions
- Applying Data to Real-World Situations

- Hypothesis Test Basics
- Selecting the Right Hypothesis Test
- Hypothesis Tests for Discrete Data
- Hypothesis Tests for Continuous Normal Data
- Hypothesis Tests for Continuous Non-Normal Data
- Why Run Hypothesis Tests
- Running Hypothesis Tests
- Hypothesis Test Examples
- Hypothesis Testing in Analyze, Improve, and Control
- A Review of Hypothesis Testing Terms

- A Review of Hypothesis Testing Errors
- What Information is Required for Choosing Sample Size?
- Guidelines for Setting Various Numbers When Calculating Sample Size
- Sample Size Calculations: Choosing the Right Method
- Running and Analyzing Sample Size Tests in Minitab
- Sample Calculations for a 1-Sample T Test
- Sample Calculations for a 1-Sample Proportion Test
- Sample Size Calculations for a 2-Sample T Test
- A Reminder Regarding Random Samples

- Common Control Chart Types and When to Use Them
- Creating and Reading Control Charts in Minitab
- X-Bar & R Charts or X-Bar & S Charts
- I-MR Chart
- P-Chart
- Practice Interpreting Control Charts
- Common Cause versus Special Cause Variation
- Additional Minitab Control Charts

- Common Challenges When Presenting Statistical Analysis
- Why Include Some Statistics?
- Tips for Creating Business-Friendly Presentations
- Understand the Target Audience
- Tell a Story with Text and Images
- Be Clear and Concise
- Don’t Misuse Your Tools
- Don’t Let the Presentation Drive the Project

- Overview of the Minitab Interface
- Overview of the Minitab Menu
- The Calc Menu Option
- Random Data
- Column and Row Statistics
- Probability Distributions
- Calculating Multiple Probabilities at Once
- Remember to Work with the Right Probability Distribution

- The Graph Menu Option
- Scatter Plot
- Histogram
- Dotplot
- Boxplot
- Interval Plot
- Bar Chart
- Pie Chart
- The Stat Menu: Quality Tools
- Run Chart
- Pareto Chart
- Gage Studies

- Basic Statistics
- Descriptive and Store Descriptive Statistics
- Regression Analysis
- Statistical Tests
- Running Hypothesis Tests
- Hypothesis Test Steps Are Similar for all Types of Tests

- Preparing for a 1-Way ANOVA
- Running a 1-Way ANOVA
- Validate Assumptions
- Run the 1-Way ANOVA Test
- What if Variances Aren’t Equal?
- The Hypothesis Test Assistance in Minitab

- When Analysis Can Occur on Existing Data
- Why Run an Experiment
- Best-Guess Trial-and-Error versus Factorial Experiments
- What is Factorial Experimentation?
- Step-by-Step Guide for Creating a Designed Experiment
- Step-by-Step Guide to Running a 2k Factorial Experiment in Minitab
- Next Steps

- The Importance of Understanding Interactions
- 2k Factorials Versus Multi-Level Factorials
- Tips for Creating Successful Designed Experiment
- Take Time to Think About the Y, or Response, of Your Experiment
- Plan Ahead, and Keep Excellent Documents
- Account for Confidence Levels
- Use Multiple Analysis and Experiments Together

- Activity Network Diagram
- Affinity Diagram
- Interrelationship Diagram
- Force Field Analysis
- Responsibility Chart
- Nominal Group Technique
- Check Sheets
- SWOT Analysis
- Starburst Brainstorming
- Role-Play or Figuring Brainstorming
- Brainwriting
- The Pool Brainwriting Method
- The Card Brainwriting Method
- Brainstorming Alone

- Why Create Process Maps
- Two Types of Process Map
- Process Map Symbols
- Where Do These Shapes Come From?
- Include a Key with Your Process Map
- Basic Flow Charts
- Creating a Swimlane Diagram
- Begin by Identifying the Swimlanes
- Create Step-by-Step List for Process Activities
- Tips for Creating Concise, Attractive Process Maps

- What is Value Stream Mapping?
- Value Stream Map Symbology
- Value Stream Mapping Tips
- Value Stream Mapping Steps
- Create a Value Stream Map Drawing
- What Do You Do with Value Stream Maps?
- Tips for Creating a Future-State Value Map